vendredi 27 novembre 2015

After Flood and Babel : Was There a PIE Unity?

1) Human population after Noah, racial and demographic pseudoproblems for creationism, 2) Have "Humans Interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans"?, 3) Sorry, Duursma, but all languages have the cases of Proto-Indoeuropean, there is no primitive language ... (which is on Φιλολoγικά/Philologica blog), 4) After Flood and Babel : Was There a PIE Unity?, 5) Chiara Bozzone on Caland System - Short Review, Trubetskoyan Comment (which is again on Φιλολoγικά/Philologica blog)

PIE = Proto-Indo-European = ancestral language from which ALL Indo-European languages are daughter languages, like Romance languages are from Latin.

Once again, polemics against the Proto-Indo-European "orthodoxy" on CMI, starting by a somewhat more complete version of the table in Towering Change by Carl Wieland.

German Danish English Latin Spanish
Hungarian Russian Mn Gk Italian French
Hungarian will often be the odd one out. Therefore it is in bold where others are normal, and here above normal, while others are in bold.

Ein En One Unus Uno
Eggy Odyin Ena Uno Un
Does the Russian combine the IE and the Hungarian form (ggy = dy)?

Zwei To Two Duo Dos
Kettö Dva Dhyo Due Deux

Drei Tre ThreeTres Tres
Három Tri Tris Tre Trois

Vier Fire Four Quattuor Cuatro
Négy Chyetirye Tessera Quattro Quatre

Fünf Fem Five Quinque Cinco
Öt Pyat Pente Cinque Cinq

Family members
Mutter Mor Mother Mater Madre
Anya Mat’ Metera Madre Mère

Vater Fa(de)r Father Pater Padre
Apa, Atya Otyetz Pateras Padre Père
Note that one of the Hungarian words = Russian (which adds an ending to it). If the Russian were akin to Pater word, I have not yet seen an explanation as to how. Also, Atya in Hungarian and Ata in Turkish are the same word as Gothic Atta (in Gothic Fadar means basically daddy, it is used to translate "abba" in a certain Biblical context).

Sohn Son Son Filius Hijo
Fiam Syn Iyos Figlio Fils
Hungarian and Latin, odd ones out (in Latin I here will include Romance, except when explicitly contrasting them).

Tochter Datter Daughter Filia Hija
Lánya Dot' Thighatera Figlia Fille
Hungarian and Latin, odd ones out

Bruder Bro(de)r Brother Frater Hermano
Testvér Brat' Adhelfos Fratello Frère
Hungarian, Greek, Spanish, three odd ones out

Schwester Syster Sister Soror Hermana
Nővére Syostr Adhelfi Sorella Sœur
Hungarian, Greek, Spanish, three odd ones out

To be honest, both for "filius/filia" gloss, and for the glosses "adelphos/adelphé" and "hermano/hermana" there are Indo-European etymologies, meaning the current explanation among linguists is that IE words originally used were disused and replaced by IE derivatives or compounds from other concepts.

Pronouns Personal
i a
Ich Jeg I Ego Yo
Én Ya Egho Io Je

i b
Mich Mig Me Me Me
Én Menya Me/Mou Mi Me

ij a
Du Du Thou Tu Tu
Te Si Tu Tu
Russian "î" = Roumanian î, Polish y

ij b
Dich Deg Thee Te Te
Ön Tebya SouTi Te

iij a
Wir Vi We Nos Nosotros
Mi Emís Noi Nous
Russian "î" = Roumanian î, Polish y
Germanic, Russo-Greek-Hungarian (!), Latin

iij b
Uns Oss Us Nos Nos
Nekünk Nas Mas Ci Nous
Germanic (=) Russo-Latin, Greek

iu a
Ihr I Ye Vos Vosotros
Neki Esís Voi Vous
Russian "î" = Roumanian î, Polish y
Germanic, Russo-Latin, Greek

iu b
Euch Je(de)r You Vos Os
Ön Vas Sas Vi Vous
Germanic, Russo-Latin, Greek

House and City
Haus Hus House Domus Casa
Ház Dom Spiti Casa Maison
Germanico-Hungarian, Russo-Latin, Italo-Spanish, Greek, French
Stadt By City Civitas/Urbs Ciudad
Város Gorod Poli Città Cité/Ville
German, Danish, Hungarian, Russian, Greek, Anglo-Latin, Latin, French
In this case we know the most common word is not original PIE for concept, but a derivative for the Latin word for citizen.

Hund Hund Dog Canis Perro
Kutya Sobaka Skilos Cane Chien
Germano-Latin, English, Spanish, Hungarian, Russian, Greek

Kater/Katze Kat Cat Feles Gato
Macska Koshka Gata Gatto Chat
Germano-Romance-Greek-Russian, Latin, Hungarian
Another case where the common word is probably not the original one.

Löwe Løve Lion Leo León
Oroszlán Lyev Leontari Leone Lion

Affe Abe Monkey/Ape Simius Mono
Majom Obiez’yana Maimouda Scimmia Singe
Germanic, Latin, English, Spanish, Hungaro-Greek (probably Turkish?), Russian

Bär Bjørn Bear Ursus Oso
Medve Myedvyed’ Arkoudha Orso Ours
Greco-Latin, Russo-Hungarian (probably Slavic), Germanic

Pferd Hest Horse Equus Caballo
Loshad’ Alogo Cavallo Cheval
Romance, German, Danish, English, Latin, Russo-Hungarian (probably Tatar), Greek

Note that Russian is the only Slavic language which has this word. Polish, Bielorussian and Ukrainean all have Kon'. A Slavic, but not obviously PIE word. (Yes, Croatian and Bulgarian also use the same word as Polish).

Kuh Ko Cow Vacca Vaca
Tehén Korova Vodi Vacca Vache
Germano-Latino-Greek, Hungarian, Russian

Vogel Fugl Foul/Bird Avis Pájaro
Madár Ptitsa Pouli Uccello Oiseau
Germano-Greek (plus other Greek word, possibly akin to Russian), Latin, Spanish, Hungarian, Russian

Fisch Fisk Fish Piscis Pez
Hal Rîba Psari/Ikhtís Pesce Poisson
Russian "î" = Roumanian î, Polish y
"IE", Hungarian, Russian, Greek, Greek

Schlange Slange Snake/Serpent Serpens Serpiente
Kigyó Zmyeya Fidhi Serpente Serpent
German (from whence Danish), English (with Swedish "snok" of other meaning), English with Latin, Hungarian, Russian, Greek

Spinne Edderkop Spider Aranea Araña
Pók Pauk Arakhni Ragno Araignée
Germanic, Greco-Latin, Danish, Russo-Hungarian

Skorpion Skorpion Scorpion Scorpio Escorpión
Skorpió Skorpion Skorpiós Scorpione Scorpion
"IE"+Hungarian? Actually Greco-Latin, borrowed into the non-Greek and non-Romance languages.

Now, no one is opposed to accepting that Scorpion was not an originally IE word. Why should "one" necessarily be from a mother language rather than loaned?

Now, you may reply, pronouns and numerals are among the least loanable words. Not necessarily so, if the language borrowings are very intelligent.

You see, in a far past, when languages were far more fragmented than now, but closer to the Flood, closer to the wisdom of Noah, very probably one realised, soon after Babel, that useful vocabulary in nouns and even verbs could be learnt very easily even between strangers - you point to a scorpion, one says "scorpion" and another says "nge" (swahili for scorpion) "dabaqallooc" (somali for scorpion) and you know what scorpion is in the other language - whereas pronouns and relatives and numerals are things you could too easily make a mistake about and one would try to construct a common vocabulary for those (extending to common verb conjugations, whereof the personal endings are largely common to Finnish as well, while preterite formations are not, and a common set of case endings. Function in phrase being also one of the categories where mistakes are easy.

This, and the fact that Indo-European languages are talked by peoples descending from different grandsons and greatgrandsons of Noah and therefore starting out with different languages after Babel makes at least the Proto-Indo-European Theory of Indo-European "by-and-large-unity" a clearly doubtful theory and mutual borrowings a clearly worthwhile pursuit of study.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St Virgil of Salzburg

Aucun commentaire:

Enregistrer un commentaire