Do Permian Critters Come from Same Places? · Some Triassic places with complete taxonomic lists
[This post is going to extensively quote wiki on all articles of species, genera or larger groups of Permian fauna. I will - at least not at first, link to every article, just to the overarching one, here : Permian : Synapsid and amphibian fauna - while next one is reach from here to Eothyridae via article Pelycosaur. I am also not going to quotemark everything quoted, rather mark my own words within square brackets, as here. Please pay attention to what each quote says about where it was found.]
The Eothyrididae were a small group of very primitive, insectivorous synapsids. Only three genera are known, Eothyris, Vaughnictis and Oedaleops, all from the early Permian of North America.
Alierasaurus is an extinct genus of caseid synapsid that lived during the Permian in what is now Sardinia.
Angelosaurus dolani ('Dolan's Angel lizard', Olson & Berrbower 1953) was a pelycosaur (an extinct clade) of reptile. It is known from a partial skull from the Middle San Angelo Formation, Knox County, Texas, USA. It dates from the Kungurian (Early Permian).
Casea is an extinct genus of pelycosaur synapsid which was about 1.2 metres (4 ft) long, slightly smaller than the otherwise very similar Caseoides. Casea was one of the first terrestrial herbivores, sharing its world with animals such as Dimetrodon and Eryops. [Geography not mentioned, †Casea broilii : Williston, 1910 : Samuel Wendell Williston : probably in Kansas]
Caseoides was a large pelycosa ur synapsid that lived in the Kungurian Age (late Early Permian epoch). It was about 3 meters long, and like many other caseids, it was herbivorous. It weighed between 150 kg to 200 kg. Its fossils were found on Texas.
Caseopsis was a large pelycosaur that was about 3 meters long. Caseopsis lived in the late Early Permian epoch (Kungurian Age), before the pelycosaurs were replaced by the more advanced therapsids (in the next age). It was a lightly built, agile creature. It may have been possible for this species to outpace and escape large predators such as Dimetrodon. [Geography not mentioned - unless Kungurian age implies Kungur in Perm, Russia]
Cotylorhynchus was a very large synapsid that lived in the southern part of what is now North America during the Early Permian period.
- Various skeletal parts of C. romeri have been found around central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland County.
- Parts of C. hancocki have been found in northern Texa s in Hardeman and Knox counties.
- C. bransoni specimens have been uncovered in Kingfisher and Blaine Counties of central-northwest Oklahoma.
Ennatosaurus (meaning "the 9th reptile") was a synapsid that lived in European Russia during the Wordian stage of the Permian period. It is included in the synapsid clade Caseidae in the order Pelycosauria. ... It lived alongside other Permian creatures, such as the herbivorous Nyctiphruretus and the carnivorous Biarmosuchus.
Nyctiphruretus (meaning "Guardian of the Night") is an extinct genus of nyctiphruretid parareptile known from the Guadalupian series (middle Permian) of European Russia. ... Many fossils of the type species, N. acudens, were found well preserved near the Mezen River of European Russia in various stages of growth. The dentition identified that Nyctiphruretus is a herbivore. Based on the large numbers of individuals found and the sediment that they were found in, it appears that their diet consisted of aquatic plants. Adults discovered averaged 36 cm in length with a 4.4 cm skull that was crushed but recognisable. Nyctiphruretus was first named by Efremov in 1938 and the type species is Nyctiphruretus acudens. In 2002, a second species was named by V. V. Bulanov. N. optabilis is known from a single jaw, also from Russia, Eastern Europe. ... In 2014, MacDougall & Reisz described and named a second genus of Nyctiphruretidae, Abyssomedon, from the middle Leonardian stage of the late Early Permian of Comanche County, Oklahoma, south-central United States
Biarmosuchus is an extinct genus of biarmosuchian therapsid that lived around 267 mya during the Middle Permian period.Biarmosuchus was discovered in the Perm region of Russia. The first specimen was found in channel sandstone that was deposited by flood waters originating from the young Ural mountains.
Currently the most representative group of the Biarmosuchia, the Burnetiamorpha comprise ten genera: Bullace phalus, Burnetia, Lemurosaurus, Lobalopex, Lophorhinus, Paraburnetia, and Pachydectes from South Africa, Niuksenitia and Proburnetia from Russia, and Lende (MAL 290) from Malawi. In addition, Sidor et al. (2010) recently described a partial skull roof including the dorsal margin of orbits and parietal foramen of an unnamed burnetiid from the upper Permian of Tanzania, and Sidor et al. (2014)  noted the presence of a burnetiid in the middle Permian of Zambia. Other Biarmosuchia include Biarmosuchus and Ictidorhinus from Russia, Hipposaurus, Herpetoskylax and Lycaenodon from South Africa, and Wantulignathus from Zambia.
Eocasea is an extinct genus of caseid synapsid from the Late Pennsylvanian of Kansas. It is known from a single type species, Eocasea martini.
Euromycter is an extinct genus of large caseid synapsid from middle Early to early Late Permian (upper Sakmarian to lower Lopingian) deposits of Southern France. It is known from the holotype MNHN.F.MC L-2, complete skull with lower jaws and partial postcranial skeleton. It was collected by D. Sigogneau-Russell and D. Russell in the 1970s from the base of the M1 Member, Grès Rouge Group, near the town of Valady (département of Aveyron), Rodez Basin. It was first assigned to the species "Casea" rutena by Sigogneau-Russell and Russell, 1974. More recently, it was reassigned to its own genus Euromycter. Euromycter was first named by Robert R. Reisz, Hillary C. Maddin, Jörg Fröbisch and Jocelyn Falconnet in 2011 and the type species is Euromycter rutenus.
Ruthenosaurus is an extinct genus of large caseid synapsid from middle Early to early Late Permian (upper Sakmarian to lower Lopingian) deposits of Southern France. It is known from the holotype MNHN.F.MCL-1 a partial postcranial skeleton. It was collected by D. Sigogneau-Russell and D. Russell in the 1970s from the base of the Grès Rouge Group, near the town of Valady (département of Av eyron), Rodez Basin. It was first named by Robert R. Reisz, Hillary C. Maddin, Jörg Fröbisch and Jocelyn Falconnet in 2011 and the type species is Ruthenosaurus russellorum.
Oromycter is an extinct genus of caseid synapsid from the Early Permian of Oklahoma. The sole and type species, Oromycter dolesorum, was named in 2005 by Robert R. Reisz.
Phreatophasma is an extinct genus of tetrapod from the Middle Permian of European Russia. It includes only one species, Phreatophasma aenigmatum, which is itself known from a single femur found in a mine near the town of Belebei in Bashkortostan. Phreatophasma comes from a fossil assemblage that is latest Ufimian to earliest Kazanian in age under the Russian stratigraphic scheme, correlating with the Roadian Age (earliest Middle Permian, about 270 million years ago) under the international stratigraphic timescale.
Trichasaurus is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid. [Geography not mentioned]
Varanopidae is an extinct family of synapsid "pelycosaurs" that resembled monitor lizards and might have had the same lifestyle, hence their name. Like many other pelycosaur families, they evolved from an Archaeothyris-like synapsid in the Late Carboniferous; they had become extinct by the end of the Middle Permian. A varanopid from the latest Middle Permian Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone is the youngest known varanopid and the last member of the "pelycosaur" group of synapsids. [And Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone = a geological stratum and a faunal zone of the Beaufort Group, of the South African Karoo. Permian land fauna in Karoo, no big surprise.]
Apsisaurus is an extinct genus of Early Permian varanopid synapsid known from Texas of the United States. It was first named by Michel Laurin in 1991 and the type species is Apsisaurus witteri. Apsisaurus witteri is known from the holotype MCZ 1474, a three-dimensionally preserved partial skeleton including an incomplete skul l and mandibles.
Archaeovenator is an extinct genus of Late Carboniferous varanopid synapsid known from Greenwood County, Kansas of the United States. Archaeovenator hamiltonensis is known from the holotype KUVP 12483, a three-dimensionally preserved, nearly complete and articulated skeleton, including the skull, with limbs and girdles slightly separated from postcranial skeleton. It was collected in the Hamilton Quarry, from the Calhouns Shale Formation of the Shawnee Group, dating to the Virgilian stage (or alternatively late Kasimovian to early Gzhelian stage) of the Late Pennsylvanian Series, about 300 million years ago.
Mycterosaurus was an extinct genus of synapsid belonging to the family Varanopidae. It is classified in the varanopid subfamily Mycterosaurinae. Mycterosaurus is the most primitive member of its family. It lacks some features that its advanced relatives have. Mycterosaurus was about 60 cm long. [No geographic specification given, unlike in the reference, a page on palaeocritti - a site I tried to preserve on a blog]
Pyozia is an extinct genus of basal Middle Permian varanopid synapsid known from Russia. It was first named by Jason S. Anderson and Robert R. Reisz in 2004 and the type species is Pyozia mesenensis. Pyozia mesenensis is known from the holotype PIN 3717/33, a three-dimensionally preserved partial skeleton including a nearly complete skull. It was collected from the Krasnoschelsk Formation, dating to the Capitanian stage of the Guadalupian epoch, about 265.8-263 million years ago. [And that a Permian thing lived on Russian soil is not a huge surprise.]
Thrausmosaurus is a genus of synapsid pelycosaurs from the extinct family Varanopidae. Like all that resemble members of Varanopidae, Thrausmosaurus most likely resembled the modern monitor lizard and may have had the same lifestyle. The type and only species was described by R. C. Fox in 1962, from three fossilized jaw fragments bearing teeth. The specimens were recovered from the fissure-fill deposits uncovered in a Limestone Quarry, north of Fort Sill, Comanche County, Oklahoma, USA. These deposits are dated to the Kungurian (Leonardian) of the Lower Permian. [Do we start to recognise Oklahoma, now?]
Varanosaurus ('monitor lizard') is an extinct genus of early pelycosaur synapsid that lived during the Kungurian. [No geographic reference given]
Elliotsmithia is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid. [No geographic reference given]
Heleosaurus is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid from the Late Permian of South Africa. It was originally described as a diapsid reptile. [Karoo - one of the pages on palaeocritti that I saved, Probably Abrahamskraal Formation, Beaufort Group, South Africa, and that means Karoo]
Mesenosaurus is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid. The only know species withi n this genus is Mesenosaurus romeri. [One can perhaps presume discoverer Efremov indicates Russia?]
Mycterosaurus was an extinct genus of synapsid belonging to the family Varanopidae. It is classified in the varanopid subfamily Mycterosaurinae. Mycterosaurus is the most primitive member of its family. It lacks some features that its advanced relatives have. Mycterosaurus was about 60 cm long. [And could Williston indicate Kansas?]
Aerosaurus (meaning "copper lizard") is an extinct genus within Varanopidae, a family of non-mammalian synapsids. It lived during the Early Permian in North America. The name comes from Latin aes (aeris) (combining stem: aer-) “copper” and Greek sauros “lizard,” for El Cobre Canyon (from Spanish cobre “copper”) in northern New Mexico, where the type fossil was found and the site of former copper mines.
Ruthiromia is an extinct genus of varanopid synapsid from the Early Permian of the United States. [acc. to reference also El Cobr e Canyon]
Tambacarnifex (meaning "Tambach butcher") is an extinct genus of varanodontine synapsid known from the Early Permian Tambach Formation of Free State of Thuringia, central Germany. It was first named by David S. Berman, Amy C. Henrici, Stuart S. Sumida, Thomas Martens and Valerie Pelletier in 2013 and the type species is Tambacarnifex unguifalcatus.
Varanodon was a pelycosaur of the family Varanopidae. It reached a length of about 1.2-1.4 m. It lived during the early late Permian period. Note 1 gives Middle (Roadian) or Early (Kungurian) Permian Chickasha Formation of Oklahoma.
Varanops is an extinct genus of Early Permian varanopid synapsid known from Texas and Oklahoma of the United States. It was first named by Samuel Wendell Williston in 1911 as a second species of Varanosaurus, Varanosaurus brevirostris. In 1914, Samuel W. Williston reassigned it to its own genu s and the type species is Varanops brevirostris. [And here we see that Williston does not automatically mean Kansas, sorry!]
V. brevirostris is known from the holotype FMNH UC 644, a three-dimensionally preserved nearly complete and articulated skeleton including a nearly complete skull and mandibles. It was collected in the Indian Creek, 35 site (=Cacops Bonebed), from the Arroyo Formation of the Clear Fork Group, Baylor County of Texas, dating to the early Kungurian stage of the Cisuralian Epoch, about 279.5-272.5 million years ago. Many well preserved specimens from the same locality and horizon of the type specimen, including FMNH UR 2423, nearly complete skull and mandibles, MCZ 1926, complete skull and mandibles and FMNH P 12841, partial skeleton, are referred to V. brevirostris. One articulated skeleton with bite marks was found in southwest of Abilene (Arroyo Formation), Taylor County of Texas. Specimens (OMNH 73156-73178) of V. brevirostris were a lso collected in the Richards Spur, from the Garber Formation (Dolese Brothers Limestone Quarry) of the Sumner Group, Comanche County of Oklahoma, dating to the same age. Those remains came from at least three individuals, and represents the first varanodontine material from the Richards Spur. Finally, TMM 43628-1, a partial skeleton with nearly complete skull, was collected in the Mud Hill locality, from the Vale Formation of the Clear Fork Group, Taylor County, also dating to the same age.
[Does Comanche County of Oklahoma ring a bell?]
Watongia is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid from Middle Permian of Oklahoma. Only one species has been described, Watongia meieri, from the Chickasha Formation. [Chickasha Oklahoma ... have we seen that before?]
Ophiacodontidae is an extinct family of early synapsids from the Carboniferous and Permian. Archaeothyris, and Clepsydrops were among the earliest ophiacodontids, appearing in the Late Carboniferous. Ophiacodontids are among the most basal synapsids, an offshoot of the lineage which includes therapsids and their descendants, the mammals. The group became extinct by the Middle Permian, replaced by anomodonts, theriodonts, and the diapsid reptiles. ... Traditionally, Archaeothyris, Ophiacodon, Varanosaurus and the briefly described Baldwinonus, Clepsydrops, Echinerpeton, Stereophallodon and Stereorhachis are included in the Ophiacodontidae. Protoclepsydrops was also regarded as ophiacodontid, however there is debate as to whether or not it was a synapsid. Echinerpeton and Sterophallodon were included for the first time in a phylogenetic analysis by Benson (in press). Echinerpeton was found to be a wildcard taxon due to its small amount of known materials. It occupies three possible positions, falling either as the most basal synapsid, as the sister taxon of Caseasauria plus more derived taxa, or as an ophiacodontid more derived than Archaeothyris. Below is a cl adogram modified from the analysis of Benson (in press), after the exclusion of Echinerpeton ....
[This means we will have to link to the subcategories, once again ...]
Archaeothyris is an extinct genus of ophiacodontid synapsid that lived during the Late Carboniferous and is known from Nova Scotia [Nova Scotia is a new one - but remember, this is not Permian, but Late Carboniferous]
Ophiacodon (meaning "snake tooth") is an extinct genus of synapsids belonging to the family Ophiacodontidae that lived from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian in North America and possibly Europe.
- England: Kenilworth - Cisuralian
- Lower Permian of Autun
- Joggins Formation - Moscovian (Carboniferous)/Kasimovian
- United States:
- Cutler Formation - Cisuralian
- Cutler Formation - Cisuralian
- Fort Riley, Chase Group - Cisuralian
- New Mexico:
- Cutler Formation - Cisuralian
- Green-Formation, Dunkard Group Cisuralian
- Ada Formation - Pennsylvania, Clyde Formation, Wellington Formation - Cisuralian
- Admiral Formation, Belle-Plains Formation, Clyde Formation, Wichita Group - Cisuralian
- Cutler Formation - Cisuralian
[Varanosaurus was already seen]
Baldwinonus is an extinct genus of basal synapsid from the Early Permian. The type species is Baldwinonus trux, named in 1940 from the Cutler Formation of New Mexico. A second species, Baldwinonus dunkardensis, was named in 1952 from Ohio.
Clepsydrops was a primitive amniote from the early Late Carboniferous that was related to Archaeothyris and the synapsids—the ancestors of mammals. Like many other terrestrial early amniotes, it probably had the diet of insects and smaller animals. It probably also laid eggs on land rather than in the water, as most of its ancestors did. A paleobiological inference model for the femur likewise suggests a terrestrial lifestyle for Clepsydrops, as for its more recent relative Ophiacodon, which is consistent with its rather thin, compact cortex. Its jaws were slightly more advanced than those of Paleothyris and Hylonomus.
- Clepsydrops collettii
- Clepsydrops limbatus
- Clepsydrops natalis
- Clepsydrops vinslovii
[No geographical indication is given.]
Paleothyris was a small, agile, anapsid reptile which lived in the Middle Pennsylvanian epoch in Nova Scotia (approximately 312 to 304 million years ago). [Pennsylvanian is a N Am synonym for Carboniferous, not sure whether "later" or "earlier", and Carboniferous in Nova Scotia is familiar.]
Hylonomus (...hylo- "forest" + nomos "dweller") is an extinct genus of reptile that lived 312 million years ago during the Late Carboniferous period. It is the earliest unquestionable reptile (Wes tlothiana is older, but in fact it may have been an amphibian, and Casineria is rather fragmentary). The only species is the type species Hylonomous lyelli. .... Fossils of Hylonomus have been found in the remains of fossilized club moss stumps in Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Echinerpeton is an extinct genus of synapsid, including the single species Echinerpeton intermedium from the Late Carboniferous of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Stereophallodon is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid. [Geographic indication not given.]
Stereorhachis is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid from the Late Carboniferous of France.
Protoclepsydrops was an early amniote, found in Joggins, Nova Scotia.
Caseasauria is one of the two main clades of early synapsids, the other being the Eupelycosauria. Caseasaurs are currently known only from the Late Carboniferous and the Permian, and include two superficially different families, the small insectivorous or carnivorous Eothyrididae, and the large herbivorous Caseidae. These two groups share a number of specialised features associated with the morphology of the snout and external naris.
- †Caseidae [done]
- †Eothyrididae [see below]
- †?Phreatophasma [done]
The Eothyrididae were a small group of very primitive, insectivorous synapsids. Only three genera are known, Eothyris, Vaughnictis and Oedaleops, all from the early Permian of North America. Their main distinguishing feature is the large caniniform tooth in front of the maxilla.
Reference : "Eothyris and Oedaleops: Do these Early Permian synapsids from Texas and New Mexico form a clade?". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29: 39.
Edaphosauridae is a family of mostly large (up to 3 meters or more) Late Carboniferous to Early Permian synapsids. Edaphosaur fossils are so far known only from North America and Europe.
- †Xyrospondylus (?)
Edaphosaurus (/ˌɛdəfoʊˈsɔːrəs/, meaning "pavement lizard" for dense clusters of teeth) is a genus of extinct edaphosaurid synapsid that lived around 300 to 280 million years ago, during the late Carboniferous to early Permian periods. The American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope first described Edaphosaurus in 1882, naming it for the "dental pavement" on both the upper and lower jaws, from the Greek edaphos/εδαφος ("ground"; also "pavement") and σαυρος/sauros ("lizard"). Edaphosaurus is important as one of the earliest known large plant-eating (herbivorous) amniote tetrapods (four-legged land-living vertebrates). In addition to the large tooth plates in its jaws, the most characteristic feature of Edaphosaurus is a sail on its back. A number of other synapsids from the same time period also have tall dorsal sails, most famou sly the large apex predator Dimetrodon. However, the sail on Edaphosaurus is different in shape and morphology. The first fossils of Edaphosaurus came from Texas in North America, with later finds in New Mexico, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Ohio. Fragmentary fossils attributed to Edaphosaurus also have been found in the Czech Republic and in Germany in Central Europe.
- Edaphosaurus novomexicanus Williston & Case, 1913 New Mexico
- Edaphosaurus boanerges Romer & Price, 1940 Texas
- Edaphosaurus microdus Cope, 1884 Texas
- Edaphosaurus pogonias Cope, 1882 Texas
- Edaphosaurus raymondi Case, 1908 Texas
- Edaphosaurus cruciger Cope, 1878 Texas and Oklahoma
- Edaphosaurus colohistion Berman, 1979 West Virginia
Glaucosaurus was a small edaphosaurid from the Early Permian. ... Glaucosaurus is known only from its holotype, a partial skull and jaw. Almost all of the sutures have been obliterated. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that Glaucosaurus is not only an edaphosaurid, but a close relative of Edaphosaurus itself.
Glaucosaurus article on paleos says Range: Middle Cisuralian [L06] of Texas
Ianthasaurus was a small edaphosaurid from the Late Carboniferous. ... It was named by Robert R. Reisz and David Berman in 1986. It was discovered by them in the Upper Pennsylvanian Rock Lake Shale near Garnett, Kansas.
Lupeosaurus is an extinct genus of pelycosaurian synapsid, assigned to the family Edaphosauridae. It is known from only two described specimens, both consisting of postcranial bits and pieces.
Paleos says Range: Cisuralian (Asselian or earliest Sakmarian) of Texas [RP40]
Xyrospondylus is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid.
- KUMNH 9963
- Charles A. Hardesty farm, NW/4, NE/4, sec. 5, T20S, R19E, Putnam Township, Anderson County, Near Garnett, Anderson County, Kansas.
- Rock Lake Member, Stanton Formation, Lansing Group.
- Missourian, Lower Stephanian, upper Silesian Stage, Kasimovian Epoch? Late Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous).
Sphenacodontidae (Greek: "wedge point tooth family") is an extinct family of small to large, advanced, carnivorous, Late Pennsylvanian to middle Permian pelycosaurs. Primitive forms were generally small (60 cm to 1 meter), but during the later part of the early Permian these animals grew progressively larger (up to 3 meters or more), to become the top predators of their environments. Sphenacodontid fossils are so far known only from North America and Europe.
- Sphenacodontinae :
Ctenorhachis (Greek for "comb spine") is an extinct genus of the family Sphenacodontidae. Ctenorhachis was related to Dimetrodon, but did not belong to the same subfamily as Dimetrodon and Sphenacodon, being a more basal member of Sphenacodontidae. Ctenorhachis lived in the Early Permian epoch. Two specimens are known that have been found from the Wichita Group outcropping in Baylor and Archer counties, north-central Texas. Only the vertebrae and pelvis are known.
Cutleria is an extinct genus of basal sphenacodontid or derived stem-sphenacodontoid known from the Early Permian period (Asselian to mid-Sakmarian stage) of the Colorado, United States. It contains a single species, Cutleria wilmarthi. Cutleria is known only from the holotype specimen USNM 22099, fractured but three-dimensionally preserved, nearly complete skull and art iculated partial postcranial skeleton (including vertebral column, ribs and several girdle and limb elements). It was collected at locality 3, near Placerville of San Miguel County, Colorado, from the Cutler Formation, dating to the Asselian to mid-Sakmarian stage of the Cisuralian series, about 299-290 million years old. MCZ 2987, a tip of the rostrum and some teeth collected 2.5 km from the type locality (from localities 11-13), was originally referred to C. wilmarthi by Lewis and Vaughn (1965). A redescription of sphenacodonts by Michel Laurin (1993 and 1994), revealed that it can't be assigned to any named sphenacodont genus. Although its teeth also bear cutting edges without serrations, they are more bulbous, not as strongly compressed laterally and not curved distally. A new genus wasn't erected for MCZ 2987, as it is very fragmentary and lacks sufficient diagnostic features.
Macromerion is an extinct genus of non-mammalian synapsid from the Late Carboniferou s of Germany.
Neosaurus is a pelycosaur-grade synapsid from the Early Permian of the Jura region of France. It is known only from a partial maxilla or upper jaw bone and an associated impression of the bone. The teardrop shape of the teeth in the jaw indicate that Neosaurus belongs to the family Sphenacodontidae, which includes the better-known Dimetrodon from the southwestern United States.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica says : Among the few described European taxa is Neosaurus cynodus, from the La Serre Horst, Eastern France. This species is represented by a single specimen, and its validity has been questioned. A detailed revision of its anatomy shows that sphenacodontids were also present in the Lodève Basin, Southern France.
Secodontosaurus (meaning "cutting-tooth lizard"), an extinct genus of "pelycosaur" synapsid that lived from between about 285 to 270 million years ago during the Early Permian. ... Fossils of Secodontosaurus have been found in Texas in North America in the Wichita and the Clear Fork groups of Early Permian formations. In recent years, teams from the Houston Museum of Natural Science have recovered remains in the Clear Fork Red Beds of North Texas that appear to be new specimens of Secodontosaurus. These discoveries are mentioned in online blogs  but so far have not been formally described.
Steppesaurus is an extinct genus of pelycosaur belonging to the Sphenacodontidae family, related to Dimetrodon and Sphenacodon. [Geographic indication by wikipedian category : Permian synapsids of North America]
Cryptovenator (Crypto, from Greek kryptos (hidden, secret); venator, from Latin (hunter)) is an extinct genus of sphenacodontid pelycosaur which existed in Germany during the latest Carboniferous (late Gzhelian age, 300 Ma ± 2.4 Ma). It is known from the holotype LFN−PW 2008/5599−LS, an anterior right mandible fragment, recovered from a dark, fine grained sandstone of the middle Remigiusberg Formation. It was first named by Jörg Fröbisch, Rainer R. Schoch, Johannes Müller, Thomas Schindler and Dieter Schweiss in 2011 and the type species is Cryptovenator hirschbergeri. [Here is German wiki: Die Remigiusberg-Formation ist in der Erdgeschichte die unterste lithostratigraphische Gesteinseinheit des Rotliegend (Perm) des Saar-Nahe-Beckens. Sie folgt auf die Breitenbach-Formation (Oberkarbon) und wird von der Altenglan-Formation überlagert. Die Datierung ist noch nicht ganz gesichert. Nach Boy & Schindler (2000) wird sie noch in das höchste Karbon gestellt. Die Remigiusberg-Formation ist nach dem Remigiusberg auf der Gemarkung der Gemeinde Haschbach im Landkreis Kusel (Rheinland-Pfalz) benannt.]
- Remigiusberg : Koordinaten: 49° 31′ 21″ N, 7° 26′ 26″ E
- Haschbach am Remigiusberg : Haschbach am Remigiusberg is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipal ity belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kusel, whose seat is in the like-named town.
- Kusel is a district (Kreis) in the south of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from north-west clockwise) Birkenfeld, Bad Kreuznach, Donnersbergkreis, Kaiserslautern, Saarpfalz and Sankt Wendel (the last two belonging to the state of Saarland).
- Rhineland-Palatinate (German: Rheinland-Pfalz, pronounced [ˈʁaɪ̯nlant ˈp͡falt͡s]) is one of the 16 states (German: Länder, lit. "countries") of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has an area of 19,846 square kilometres (7,663 sq mi) and about four million inhabitants. Its state capital is Mainz. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany and borders Belgium, Luxembourg and France, and the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse, Baden-Württe mberg and Saarland.
Ctenospondylus, ("comb vertebra") was a pelycosaur that was about 3 meters (10 feet) long. It is known only from the 'Seymouran' Land Vertebrate Faunachron, which is equivalent to the upper part of the Artinskian stage and the lowermost Kungurian stage of the Early Permian. Its fossils were found in the U.S. states of Ohio and Texas. [Ohio, Texas ... sounds familiar]
Reference : Lucas, S.G. (2006). "Global Permian tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology". In Lucas S,G.; Cassinis G.; Schneider J.W. Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology. Special Publications. 265. London: Geological Society. pp. 65–93. ISBN 9781862392069. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
Dimetrodon (Listeni/daɪˈmiːtrədɒn/; meaning "two measures of teeth") is an extinct genus of synapsid that lived during the Early Permian period, around 295–272 million years ago (Ma). It is a member of the family Sphenacodontidae. The m ost prominent feature of Dimetrodon is the large sail on its back formed by elongated spines extending from the vertebrae. It walked on four legs and had a tall, curved skull with large teeth of different sizes set along the jaws. Most fossils have been found in the southwestern United States, the majority coming from a geological deposit called the Red Beds in Texas and Oklahoma. More recently, fossils have been found in Germany. Over a dozen species have been named since the genus was first described in 1878.
- Dimetrodon occidentalis Berman, 1977 Arizona, New Mexico, Utah
- Dimetrodon teutonis Berman et al., 2001 Germany
- Dimetrodon grandis Romer and Price, 1940 Oklahoma, Texas
- Dimetrodon limbatus Romer and Price, 1940 Oklahoma, Texas
- Dimetrodon borealis Leidy, 1854 Prince Edward Island
- Dimetrodon angelensis Olson, 1962 Texas
- Dimetrodon booneorum Romer, 1937 Texas
- Dimetrodon dollovianus Case, 1907 Texas
- Dimetrodon gigashomogenes Case, 1907 Texas
- Dimetrodon kempae Romer, 1937 Texas
- Dimetrodon macrospondylus Case, 1907 Texas
- Dimetrodon milleri Romer, 1937 Texas
- Dimetrodon natalis Romer, 1936 Texas
- Dimetrodon loomisi Romer, 1937 Texas, Oklahoma
Fossils of Dimetrodon are known from the United States (Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Ohio) and Germany, areas that were part of the supercontinent Euramerica during the Early Permian. Within the United States, almost all material attributed to Dimetrodon has come from three geological groups in north-central Texas and south-central Oklahoma: the Clear Fork Group, the Wichita Group, and the Pearce River Group.
Here is also a List of Pelycosaurs Click "location" for a grouping according to these.
Diadectes (meaning crosswise-biter) is an extinct genus of large, very reptile-like amphibians that lived during the early Permian period (Cisuralian epochs, between 290 and 272 million years ago). Diadectes was one of the very first herbivorous tetrapods, and also one of the first fully terrestrial animals to attain large size.
Diadectes was first named and described by the American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in 1878, based on part of a lower jaw (AMNH 4360) from the Permian of Texas. Cope noted: "Teeth with short and much compressed crowns, whose long axis is transverse to that of the jaws," the feature expressed in the generic name Diadectes "crosswise biter" (from Greek dia "crosswise" + Greek dēktēs "biter"). He described the animal as "in all probability, herbivorous." Cope's Neo-Latin type species name sideropelicus (from Greek sidēros "iron" + Greek pēlos "clay" + -ikos) "of iron clay" alluded to the Wichita beds in Texas, where the fossil was found. Diadectes fossil remains are known from a number of locations across North America, especially the Texas Red Beds (Wich ita and Clear Fork). [Wichita .... hmmm?]
Dinocephalia is a clade of large-bodied early therapsids that flourished for a brief time in the Middle Permian between 272 and 260 million years ago (Ma), but became extinct leaving no descendants. Dinocephalians included both herbivorous and carnivorous forms. Many species had thickened skulls with many knobs and bony projections. Dinocephalian fossils are known from Russia, China, Brazil, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. [And South Africa means Karoo ... article shows a feller named as of late Moschops capensis]
Gorgonopsia ("Gorgon face") is an extinct suborder of therapsid synapsids. Like other therapsids, gorgonopsians (or gorgonopsids) were at one time called "mammal-like reptiles", though "stem mammals" is more accurate.
- Family Gorgonopsidae
- Cephali custriodus
- Subfamily Gorgonopsinae
- Subfamily Inostranceviinae
- Subfamily Rubidgeinae
Aelurognathus is an extinct genus of gorgonopsian therapsid from the Permian of South Africa. ... The type species is Aelurognathus tigriceps, originally named Scymnognathus tigriceps by South African paleontologists Robert Broom and Sydney H. Haughton in 1913, and later assigned to the new genus Aelurognathus by Haughton in 1924. ... A broken tooth beside the skeleton of a dicynodont from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone has been attributed to Aelurognathus, indicating that it scavenged. [Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone = a faunal zone of the Beaufort Group, of the South African Karoo. The name refers to Tropidostoma, a genus of dicynodont, whose fossils have been found in that structure.]
Aelurosaurus ("cat lizard", from Ancient Greek αἴλουρος "cat" and σαῦρος "lizard") is an extinct genus of gorgonopsian therapsid from the Late Permian of South Africa. It was first named by Owen in 1881, and contains four species, A. felinus, A. polyodon, A. whaitsi, and A. wilmanae. [Karoo Horizon: Cistecephalus assemblage zone, Beaufort group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian). Type locality: Karoo basin, South Africa.]
Aloposaurus is an extinct genus of gorgonopsian therapsid from the Late Permian of South Africa. It was first named by Broom in 1910, and contains the type species A. gracilis, and possibly a second species A. tenuis. This small gorgonopsid had a slender narrow skull only 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long, with a total body length of 60–70 cm (2.0–2.3 ft). Aloposaurus is known from a single weathered skull from a probable immature individual. [Karoo]
Arctognathus is an extinct genus of gorgonopsid that throve during the Late Permian in the Karoo basin of what is now South Africa.
Arctops ("Bear face") is an extinct genus of gorgonopsian therapsid known from the Late Permian of South Africa. It measured up to 2 m (6 ft) in length and its skull was 30 cm (1 ft) long. The type species is Arctops willistoni. A second species, A. watsoni, may be synonymous with A. willistoni. A. kitchingi may be a third species of Arctops, but it was only tentatively assigned to the genus when it was first named.
Broomisaurus is an extinct genus of Gorgonopsia. It was first named by Joleaud in 1920, and contains the single species B. planiceps. Gebauer (2007) considered Broomisaurus to be a nomen dubium, indistinguishable as a separate taxon of gorgonopsian because it is based on only a fragmentary remains. A 2015 paper on Eriphostoma tentatively agreed with Gebauer's determination, but did not rule out the possibility that Broomisaurus might be synonymous with Eriphostoma. [Eva Gebauer refers to the Skull and Skeleton of GPIT/RE/7113 and abstract names Ruhuhu-Valley in Tanzania]
Ruhuhucerberus is a very large, extinct gorgonopsian therapsid which existed in Tanzania during the Late Permian. Its fossils are found in the Penman Kawinga formation of the Ruhuhu Basin. It existed sympatrically with the even larger Rubidgea. (Redirected from Cephalicustriodus)
Cerdorhinu s is an extinct genus of gorgonopsian therapsid from the Permian of South Africa. The type species Cerdorhinus parvidens was named by South African paleontologist Robert Broom in 1936. A second species, Cerdorhinus rubidgei, was named in 1970. In 2007, it was reassigned to the genus Cyonosaurus.
Clelandina is an extinct genus of rubidgeine gorgonopsian from the Late Permian of Africa. It was first named by Broom in 1948. The type and only species is C. rubidgei. It is relatively rare, with only four known specimens.
- 1 Kammerer, Christian F. (2016). "Systematics of the Rubidgeinae (Therapsida: Gorgonopsia)". PeerJ. 4: e1608. doi:10.7717/peerj.1608.
- 2 Fossilworks : Clelandina
[Cyonosaurus refers to same article by Gebauer]
Dinogorgon ("terrible gorgon") is an extinct genus of rubidgeine gorgonopsian from the Late Permian of South Africa and Tanzania. Dinogorgon was a 2 m (6 ft) long predator that preyed on reptiles and smaller therapsids. It is a member of the tribe Rubidgeini.
- Dinogorgon rubidgei
- Holotype (RC 1):
- Cistecephalus-Dicynodon assemblage zone, Beaufort group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).
- Type locality:
- Karoo basin, South Africa.
- Dinogorgon quinquemolaris
- Holotype (GPIT/RE/3430):
- nearly complete skull
- Referred specimen:
- RC 103 (nearly complete skull. Holotype of D. oudebergensis)
- Upper Permian
- Tanzania and South Africa.
- Dinogorgon pricei
- Holotype (BPI 225):
- incomplete skull
- Cistecephalus-Dicynodon assemblage zone, Beaufort group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).
- Type locality:
- Karoo basin, South Africa.
Eriphostoma is an extinct genus of gorgonopsian therapsid known from the Middle Permian (middle Capitanian stage) of Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone, South Africa. It was first named by Robert Broom in 1911 and the type species is Eriphostoma microdon. A revision of Eriphostoma by Kammerer (2013) found it to represent the earliest known gorgonopsian. (Redirected from Eoarctops) (Redirected from Galesuchus)
[And Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone is ... Karoo Basin]
[No more square brackets for my words].... I am sorry, we're in the middle of Gorgonopsia, and I am tired.
I think I have made my point./HGL