lundi 27 février 2017

This Morning I Read it's 77 and 68 Years of Radiocarbon


77 years, on the day, since Carbon 14 was discovered in 1940, and about 68 years since in 1949 the first radiocarbon actual datings were done. These then within Egyptology.

Carbon-14 was discovered on 27 February 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Its existence had been suggested by Franz Kurie in 1934.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon-14


Citing:

Kamen, Martin D. (1963). "Early History of Carbon-14: Discovery of this supremely important tracer was expected in the physical sense but not in the chemical sense". Science. 140 (3567): 584–590.

Early History of Carbon-14
Science 10 May 1963:
Vol. 140, Issue 3567, pp. 584-590
DOI: 10.1126/science.140.3567.584
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/140/3567/584


Libby and James Arnold proceeded to test the radiocarbon dating theory by analyzing samples with known ages. For example, two samples taken from the tombs of two Egyptian kings, Zoser and Sneferu, independently dated to 2625 BC plus or minus 75 years, were dated by radiocarbon measurement to an average of 2800 BC plus or minus 250 years. These results were published in Science in 1949.[8][9] Within 11 years of their announcement, more than 20 radiocarbon dating laboratories had been set up worldwide.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating


Arnold, J.R.; Libby, W.F. (1949). "Age determinations by radiocarbon content: checks with samples of known age". Science. 110 (2869): 678–680.
[dead link? hbar.phys.msu.ru/gorm/fomenko/libby.htm ]

Aitken (1990), pp. 60–61.

"The method". www.c14dating.com. Retrieved 2016-10-09.
http://www.c14dating.com/int.html


If Djoser had been dated by Cambridge halflife to 2800 BC in 1950, the remaining C-14 would have been 56.293 %. A full Cambridge half life is however further back.

However, as usual, this presumes that the C-14 content back then was c. 100% of the present value.

Also, the Libby date is off, so instead of 4750 years, 4892,5 years. 4892 years gives a content of 55.334 %.

Why is this important?

Well, Djoser, as well as Neferkasokar seem to be Joseph's pharao.

Look what I found on Famine Stela (which by the way as physical object is far later):

The Famine Stela is an inscription written in hieroglyphs located on Sehel Island in the Nile near Aswan in Egypt, which speaks of a seven-year period of drought and famine during the reign of the 3rd dynasty king Djoser. It is thought that the stela was inscribed during the Ptolemaic dynasty, which ruled 332–31 BC.

...

The story told on the stela is set in the 18th year of the reign of king Djoser. The text describes how the king is upset and worried, as the land of Egypt has been in the grip of a drought and famine for seven years, during which time the Nile has not flooded the farm lands. The text also describes how the Egyptian people are suffering as a result of the drought and that they are desperate and breaking the laws of the land. Djoser asks the priest staff under the supervision of high lector priest Imhotep for help. The king wants to know where Hapy (a river deity directly identified with the Nile) is born and which god resides at this place.

Imhotep decides to investigate the archives of the temple Hut-Ibety (“House of the nets”), located at Hermopolis and dedicated to the god Thoth.

...

At the time of first translating the stela, it was thought that the story of a seven-year-famine was connected to the biblical story in Genesis 41, where also a famine of seven years occurs. But more recent investigations have showed that a seven-year famine was a myth common to nearly all cultures of the Near East. A Mesopotamian legend also speaks of a seven-year-famine and in the well known Gilgamesh-Epos the god Anu gives a prophecy about a famine for seven years. A further Egyptian tale beside the Famine Stela about a long-lasting drought appears in the so-called “Book of the Temple”, translated by German Demotist Joachim Friedrich Quack. The ancient text reports about king Neferkasokar (late 2nd dynasty), who faces a seven-year-famine during his reign.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Famine_Stela


Neferkasokar (Ancient Egyptian Nefer-Ka-Seker; which means “beautiful soul of Sokar” or “the soul of Sokar is complete”) is the name of an Ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) who may have ruled in Egypt during the 2nd dynasty. Very little is known about him, since no contemporary records about him have been found. Rather his name has been found in later sources.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neferkasokar


So, we cannot carbon date Neferkasokar differently than Djoser, we can rather assume he is a double of Djoser.

And of course, the seven year famine happened, and while Gilgamesh can't be dated as a person by it, the writing of the Gilgamesh poem could be in the time of Joseph or later.

Thus, assuming the c-14 measure Libby found was 55.334 % of present carbon 14 or 55.334 pmc (percent modern carbon), we can by conferring what date Joseph's famine was determine sth more on radiocarbon.

Abraham was born in 2015 BC, which is later than Djoser dates too, but Djoser ruled later than Abraham, in the time of Joseph.

Note : very many pharaos have not been carbon dated as to their coffin.

Note also, Imhotep may be a Pagan rationalisation of Joseph. Precisely as the Christians in Legio whatever the number Fulminatrix were rationalised into an Egyptian Magician, so as to not disturb the Paganism and persecution of Christians prevailing under Marcus Aurelius.

The location of Imhotep's self-constructed tomb was well hidden from the beginning and it remains unknown, despite efforts to find it.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imhotep


So we cannot check "Imhotep" was buried as a Pagan. Was Joseph then by Pagans elevated to a false godhood? Very probable. Unless Joseph was Imhotep's apparently companion Hordadaf.

Djedefhor or Hordjedef was an ancient Egyptian prince of the 4th dynasty. His name means "Enduring Like Horus". ... Djedefhor was a son of Pharaoh Khufu and half-brother of pharaohs Djedefre and Khafre.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djedefhor


Or perhaps not. Djedefhor or Hordjedef was perhaps later, and Hordjedef could have been named in a fashion of names in -ef coming after Joseph.

Or Djedef (as such, without the Horus reference) could even be how Egyptians pronounced Joseph.

Haydock comment, using Ussher's chronology, has in Genesis 41 : 1: Year of the World 2289, Year before Christ 1715. 54: Year of the World 2296, Year before Christ 1708.

This shall be compared to Vocation of Abraham, Genesis 12:10: Year of the World 2084, Year before Christ 1920. (So, Ussher is 20 years off for birth of Abraham).

1995
1708
0287

2015
0287
1728

This means that carbon dated 2800 BC = 1728 or rather less, later, BC.

We can get a little closer even. Supposing Djoser was still ruling when Jacob blessed his sons in Genesis 49, this was in 32: Year of the World 2315, Year before Christ 1689.

1995
1689
0306

2015
0306
1709

Carbon dated 2800 = 1709.

2800 C-14 year
1709 real year
1091 excess age due to lower carbon content.

The carbon content in Joseph's time when Jacob died was therefore about 87.636 pmc.

So, the content noted in a previous post, of 90.86 pmc was too high.

Let's redo the table a bit.

Mid pt. 1928 BC
83.689 % + 1472 years, 3400 BC
XIII 1883 BC
84.882 %
XIV 1794 BC
89.378 %
XV 1704 BC
90.86 %, + 790 years, 2494 BC
87.636 %, + 1091 years, 2800 BC
XVI 1614 BC
93.634 %
XVII 1525 BC
94.553 %
XVIII 1436 BC
96.269 %
XIX 1346 BC
96.839 %
XX 1256 BC
97.895 %
XXI 1167 BC
98.245 %
XXII 1078 BC
98.905 %
XXIII 988 BC
99.125 %
XXIV 898 BC
99.52 %
XXV 809 BC
99.652 %
XXVI 720 BC
99.872 %
XXVII 630 BC
100.004 %, 0 years ±. 630 BC

Mid pt. 1928 BC
83.689 % + 1472 years, 3400 BC
XIII 1883 BC
84.882 %
XIV 1794 BC
89.378 %
XV 1704 BC
90.86 %, + 790 years, 2494 BC
87.636 %, + 1091 years, 2800 BC


90.86-83.689 = 7.171 %
87.636-83.689 = 3.947 %

XIII 84.882-83.689 = 1.193
1.193 / 7.171 = 0.1663645237763213
0.1663645237763213*3.947 = 0.6566407753451401711
0.6566407753451401711+83.689=84.3456407753451401711
84.35 %, + 1400 years, 3283 BC

XIV 89.378-83.689 = 5.689 %
5.689 / 7.171 = 0.7933342630037652
0.7933342630037652*3.947 = 3.1312903360758612444
3.1312903360758612444+83.689= 86.8202903360758612444
86.82 %, + 1150 years, 2944 BC

Mid pt. 1928 BC
83.689 % + 1472 years, 3400 BC
XIII 1883 BC
84.35 %, + 1400 years, 3283 BC
XIV 1794 BC
86.82 %, + 1150 years, 2944 BC
XV 1704 BC
87.636 %, + 1091 years, 2800 BC


What about what comes after?

XV 1704 BC
100-90.86 % = 9.14 %
100-87.636 % = 12.364 %
12.364 / 9.14 = 1.3527352297592998
XVI 1614 BC
100-93.634 % = 6.366 %
6.366*1.3527352297592998 = 8.612
100-8.612 = 91.388 %, + 740 years, 2354 BC
XVII 1525 BC
100-94.553 % = 5.447 %
1.3527352297592998*5.447 = 7.3683487964989060106
100-7.368 = 92.632 %, + 630 years, 2155 BC
XVIII 1436 BC
100-96.269 % = 3.731 %
1.3527352297592998*3.731 = 5.0470551422319475538
100-5.047 = 94.953 %, + 430 years, 1866 BC
XIX 1346 BC
100-96.839 % = 3.161 %
1.3527352297592998*3.161 = 4.275996 ... %
100-4.276 = 95.724 %, + 360 years, 1706 BC
XX 1256 BC
100-97.895 % = 2.105 %
1.3527352297592998*2.105 = 2.847507658643326079
100-2.848 = 97.152 %, + 240 years, 1496 BC
XXI 1167 BC
100-98.245 % = 1.755 %
1.3527352297592998*1.755 = 2.374050328227571149
100-2.374 = 97.626 %, + 200 years, 1367 BC
XXII 1078 BC
100-98.905 % = 1.095 %
1.3527352297592998*1.095 = 1.481245076586433281
100-1.481 = 98.519 %, + 120 years, 1198 BC
XXIII 988 BC
100-99.125 % = 0.875 %
1.3527352297592998*0.875 = 1.183643326039387325
100-1.184 = 98.816 %, + 100 years, 1088 BC
XXIV 898 BC
100-99.52 % = 0.48 %
1.3527352297592998*0.48 = 0.649312910284463904
100-0.649 = 99.351 %, + 50 years, 948 BC
XXV 809 BC
100-99.652 % = 0.348 %
1.3527352297592998*0.348 = 0.4707518599562363304
100-0.471 = 99.529 %, + 40 years, 849 BC
XXVI 720 BC
100-99.872 % = 0.128 %
1.3527352297592998*0.128 = 0.1731501094091903744
100-0.173 = 99.827 %, + 10 years, 730
XXVII 630 BC
100-100.004 % = "-0.004 %"
1.3527352297592998*-0.004 = -0.0054109409190371992
100-(-0.005) = 100.005 %, 0 years ±. 630 BC


And cleaning up:

Mid pt. 1928 BC
83.689 % + 1472 years, 3400 BC
XIII 1883 BC
84.35 %, + 1400 years, 3283 BC
XIV 1794 BC
86.82 %, + 1150 years, 2944 BC
XV 1704 BC
87.636 %, + 1091 years, 2800 BC
XVI 1614 BC
91.388 %, + 740 years, 2354 BC
XVII 1525 BC
92.632 %, + 630 years, 2155 BC
XVIII 1436 BC
94.953 %, + 430 years, 1866 BC
XIX 1346 BC
95.724 %, + 360 years, 1706 BC
XX 1256 BC
97.152 %, + 240 years, 1496 BC
XXI 1167 BC
97.626 %, + 200 years, 1367 BC
XXII 1078 BC
98.519 %, + 120 years, 1198 BC
XXIII 988 BC
98.816 %, + 100 years, 1088 BC
XXIV 898 BC
99.351 %, + 50 years, 948 BC
XXV 809 BC
99.529 %, + 40 years, 849 BC
XXVI 720 BC
99.827 %, + 10 years, 730
XXVII 630 BC
100.005 %, 0 years ±. 630 BC


That would perhaps do for today.

Hans Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows
27.II.2017

PS, forgot som credits due to myself and others.

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