Here is Syncellus, same kind of rebooting as previously between Ussher and St Jerome, and as a bonus, his tables involve lots of historical lore, I am omitting most of it, but not denying myself the dates of the seven kings of Rome:
- I 3258 BC
- 2.142 pmc, + 31 800 years, 35058 BC
- II 3086 BC
- 25.609 pmc, + 11 250 years, 14336 BC
- III 2913 BC
- 40.195 pmc, + 7550 years, 10463 BC
- 2724 BC, Dispersion of Tongues
- here comes before older layers of Göbekli Tepe.
A not further calibrated table according to Syncellus must therefore renounce on identifying the city of the Tower of Babel with Göbekli Tepe.
But it is not very difficult to recalibrate by shoving the following back a little.
- IV 2741 BC
- 54.721 pmc, + 5000 years, 7741 BC
- V 2568 BC
- 63.751 pmc, + 3700 years, 6268 BC
- VI 2396 BC
- 72.689 pmc, + 2650 years, 5046 BC
- VII 2224 BC
- 78.256 pmc, + 2050 years, 4274 BC
- 2189 BC
- Birth of Abraham.
- 2089 BC
- Birth of Isaac.
And beginnings of a unified Egypt (and Egypt existed 24 years before Isaac was born) are Narmer, whose raw carbon date is 3400 BC? Even if this is by Egyptologists adjusted to 3200 BC as beginning of Early Dynastic Egypt.
Here we are not yet even in 3501 BC.
Or suppose the raw carbon date was a Libby date ... 3400+1950=5350, 5350*1.03=5510.5, 5510-1950=3560.
If the raw carbon date of Cambridge halflife is 3560 BC, it is possible.
- VIII 2051 BC
- 83.844 pmc, + 1450 years, 3501 BC
- IX 1879 BC
- 87.316 pmc, + 1100 years, 2979 BC
- X 1707 BC
- 90.665 pmc, + 810 years, 2517 BC
- 1685 BC
- the Syncellus date for Exodus. Falls between 2517 and 2154 BC, Cambridge carbon dates, or 2387 and 2034 BC Libby dates.
Same thing for 1645 BC, the approximate date of fall of Jericho.
I think Kenyon would be happier with a higher than 100 pmc at this date, and taking Syncellus as giving the good date for fall of Jericho (still standing 1575).
But this omits that we are dealing with a rise in carbon levels.
If Kenyon's dates for Jericho are 1575 BC (see below), it would more probably be due to it being in 1470 BC (as St Jerome chronology suggests) and misdated as older.
- XI 1534 BC
- 92.752 pmc, + 620 years, 2154 BC
- 1433 BC
- Debora and Barac
- 1386 BC
- XII 1362 BC
- 94.992 pmc, + 430 years, 1792 BC
- 1282 BC
- 1211 BC
- XIII 1190 BC
- 96.376 pmc, + 310 years, 1500 BC
- 1189 BC
- Agamemnon becomes king of Mycenae and of Argives
- 1172 BC
- Syncellus' date for taking of Troy.
- 1166 BC
- Orestes becomes king of Mycenae and of Argives
- 1161 BC
- Aeneas becomes king of Latins
- 1158 BC
- ... and three years later Ascanius follows him
- 1151 BC
- Eli is Judge
- 1128 BC
- Samuel is Judge
- 1112 BC
- Syncellus places the election of Saul
- 1072 BC
- King David
- 1032 BC
- King Solomon
- XIV 1017 BC
- 97.486 pmc, + 210 years, 1227 BC
- 992 BC
- Roboam and Jeroboam (the editor takes exception to their rule starting same year).
- 944 BC / 938 BC
- Omri of Israel
- 931 / 930 BC
- Josaphath of Judah
- 930 / 926 BC
- Achab of Israel
- 906 BC
- Joram Judah and Israel (editor)
- 905 BC
- Joram Judah (Syncellus himself)
- 903 BC
- Joram Israel (Syncellus himself)
- 894 BC
- Jehu (editor)
- 891 BC
- Joas (editor) / Jehu (Syncellus himself)
- 888 BC
- Joas (Syncellus himself)
- XV 845 BC
- 98.188 pmc, + 150 years, 995 BC
- 800 BC
- Macedon begins
- 825 BC
- Syncellus poses the date when Medes take over after Assyrians.
- 770 BC
- Athens ceases to be a monarchy and has "archontes decennes" (archons ruling ten years or archons ruling ten together per year?)
- 759 BC
- Founding of Rome. Romulus.
- 754 BC
- Achas of Judah
- 743 / 740 BC
- Hosea of Israel
- 738 / 735 BC
- Hezechias of Judah
- 721 BC
- Numa Pompilius
- 680 BC
- Tullius Hostilius.
- XVI 672 BC
- 99.298 pmc, + 60 years, 732 BC
- 648 BC
- Ancus Martius.
- 625 BC
- Tarquinius Priscus
- 613 BC
- 588 BC
- Servius Tullius
- 548 BC
- 544 BC
- Tarquinius Superbus.
- 520 BC
- Rome has consuls.
- 515 BC
- Egypt is conquered by Persia.
- XVII 500 BC
- 100 pmc, no extra years, 500 BC
Here is a citation of Jericho for you:
A succession of settlements followed from 4500 BCE onward, the largest constructed in 2600 BCE.
Jericho was continually occupied into the Middle Bronze Age; it was destroyed in the Late Bronze, after which it no longer served as an urban centre. The city was surrounded by extensive defensive walls strengthened with rectangular towers, and possessed an extensive cemetery with vertical shaft-tombs and underground burial chambers; the elaborate funeral offerings in some of these may reflect the emergence of local kings.
During the Middle Bronze Age, Jericho was a small prominent city of the Canaan region, reaching its greatest Bronze Age extent in the period from 1700 to 1550 BCE. It seems to have reflected the greater urbanization in the area at that time, and has been linked to the rise of the Maryannu, a class of chariot-using aristocrats linked to the rise of the Mitannite state to the north. Kathleen Kenyon reported "...the Middle Bronze Age is perhaps the most prosperous in the whole history of Kna'an. ... The defenses ... belong to a fairly advanced date in that period" and there was "a massive stone revetment... part of a complex system" of defenses (pp. 213–218). Bronze-Age Jericho fell in the 16th century at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, the calibrated carbon remains from its City-IV destruction layer dating to 1617–1530 BCE. Notably this carbon dating c. 1573 BCE confirmed the accuracy of the stratigraphical dating c. 1550 by Kenyon.
There was evidence of a small settlement in the Late Bronze Age (c.1400s BCE) on the site, but erosion and destruction from previous excavations have erased significant parts of this layer.
Unfortunately, Syncellus gives no date for Joseph in Egypt, that I could find in the tables, which would be with Djoser, carbon dated, like Narmer.
The most interesting line from Jacob to Syncellus is Levi, Caath, Amram, Moses.
I have omitted lots of material from Syncellus, though it is interesting. Some is a bit more bewildering than I can deal with, I am still no great knower of the enture kings of Judah and Israel.
On a totally other note, while I think Eusebius and St Jerome and Roman Martyrology are more correct than Syncellus, the editor of the work is actually, probably, a Catholic, from Germany, Niebuhr, and in 1829 it was published in Bonn, and involves a dedication by a Paris Dominican (I have seen their Church!) namely Jacques Goar OP to one Pierre Séguier, Chancellor of France.
That was written in Rue St Honoré (a road where now the French Presidents reside) and this was under King Charles X, who conquered Algeria.
Hans Georg Lundahl
ut supra (vel infra)
Corrected correlation between a set of Syncellus dates and the crucial points, 4.IV.2017/HGL